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Baumann, Matthias; Gumpold, Christiane; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Schoserd, Benedikt; Haberler, Christine; Löscher, Wolfgang N.; Rostasy, Kevin; Fischer, Michael B.; Wanschitz, Julia V. (2018): Pattern of myogenesis and vascular repair in early and advanced lesions of juvenile dermatomyositis. In: Neuromuscular Disorders, Vol. 28, No. 12: pp. 973-985
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Regenerative processes that counteract perifascicular muscle atrophy and capillary loss in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) are not well characterized. We aimed to analyze the pattern of myo-regeneration in relation to vascular damage and repair in muscle specimens from JDM patients. Myogenic regulatory factors that are sequentially expressed during myogenesis were studied by immunohistochemistry. Capillary density, numbers of CD34(+) endothelial progenitor cells within the endomysium and molecules implicated in angiogenesis were evaluated by double-immunofluorescence techniques. Myogenic regulatory factors were significantly up-regulated in JDM muscle exhibiting a different pattern in early and advanced lesions. In early lesions Pax7(+) satellite cells and both MyoD(+) and Myogenin(+) myogenic cells were moderately increased. In lesions with advanced perifascicular atrophy Pax7(+) satellite cells were numerous, but absence of MyoD+ in the context of increased Myogenin(+) expression suggested a dysregulation of the myogenic regenerative pathway. The overall capillary density in JDM was decreased, but region's of capillary loss in advanced lesions alternated with focal increase of hyperplastic endothelial cells in early lesions. Up-regulation of endoglin in hyperplastic endothelial cells in conjunction with overexpression of TGF-beta 1 and VEGF suggested activation of neovascularization. Conversely, CD34(+) endothelial progenitor cells were not increased arguing against relevant contribution to vascular repair. Our results demonstrate substantial induction of myogenesis in JDM. While the early phase of myogenesis appears to be associated with endothelial cell activation, an altered expression of MRFs in perifascicular regions with capillary depletion suggests an impairment of myogenic differentiation that may contribute to perifascicular muscle fiber atrophy in JDM.