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Högl, Sandra; Burns, Nana; Angulo, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Osborne, Christopher M.; Mills, Tingting W.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Vohwinkel, Christine U. (2018): Capturing the multifactorial nature of ARDS - "Two-hit" approach to model murine acute lung injury. In: Physiological Reports, Vol. 6, No. 6, e13648
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Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) presents typically with an initializing event, followed by the need for mechanical ventilation. Most animal models of ALI are limited by the fact that they focus on a singular cause of acute lung injury (ALI) and therefore fail to mimic the complex, multifactorial pathobiology of ARDS. To better capture this scenario, we provide a comprehensive characterization of models of ALI combining two injuries: intra tracheal (i.t.) instillation of LPS or hypochloric acid (HCl) followed by ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized, that mice pretreated with LPS or HCl prior to VILI and thus receiving a (two-hit injury) will sustain a superadditive lung injury when compared to VILI. Mice were allocated to following treatment groups: control with i.t. NaCl, ventilation with low peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), i.t. HCl, i.t. LPS, VILI (high PIP), HCl i.t. followed by VILI and LPS i.t. followed by VILI. Severity of injury was determined by protein content and MPO activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), the expression of inflammatory cytokines and histopathology. Mice subjected to VILI after HCl or LPS instillation displayed augmented lung injury, compared to singular lung injury. However, mice that received i.t. LPS prior to VILI showed significantly increased inflammatory lung injury compared to animals that underwent i.t. HCl followed by VILI. The two-hit lung injury models described, resulting in additive but differential acute lung injury recaptures the clinical relevant multifactorial etiology of ALI and could be a valuable tool in translational research.