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DSouza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Chockanathan, Udaysankar and Wismüller, Axel (2018): Regional Autonomy Changes in Resting-State Functional MRI in Patients with HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. In: Medical Imaging 2018: Image Processing, Vol. 10574

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In this study, we investigate whether there are discernable changes in influence that brain regions have on themselves once patients show symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) using functional MRI (fMRI). Simple functional connectivity measures, such as correlation cannot reveal such information. To this end, we use mutual connectivity analysis (MCA) with Local Models (LM), which reveals a measure of influence in terms of predictability. Once such measures of interaction are obtained, we train two classifiers to characterize difference in patterns of regional self-influence between healthy subjects and subjects presenting with HAND symptoms. The two classifiers we use are Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Localized Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (LGMLVQ). Performing machine learning on fMRI connectivity measures is popularly known as multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). By performing such an analysis, we are interested in studying the impact HIV infection has on an individual's brain. The high area under receiver operating curve (AUC) and accuracy values for 100 different train/test separations using MCA-LM self-influence measures (SVM: mean AUC=0.86, LGMLVQ: mean AUC=0.88, SVM and LGMLVQ: mean accuracy=0.78) compared with standard MVPA analysis using cross-correlation between fMRI time-series (SVM: mean AUC=0.58, LGMLVQ: mean AUC=0.57), demonstrates that self-influence features can be more discriminative than measures of interaction between time-series pairs. Furthermore, our results suggest that incorporating measures of self-influence in MVPA analysis used commonly in fMRI analysis has the potential to provide a performance boost and indicate important changes in dynamics of regions in the brain as a consequence of HIV infection.

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