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Peschel, Andrea; Moser, Kristina and Korbel, Rüdiger (2018): Die dreidimensionale sonographische Untersuchung des Vogelauges. Untersuchungstechniken und physiologische Befunde. In: Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe Kleintiere Heimtiere, Vol. 46, No. 4: pp. 236-245

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Objective: The paper describes the possibilities and the clinical utility of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography in the avian eye. Material and methods: The healthy eyes of 44 patients (six various raptor, three psittacine bird and four other bird species) were examined using the Voluson i ultrasound unit (GE Healthcare, Austria) in combination with a high-resolution 18 MHz linear probe. Physiological findings should be demonstrated to obtain a clinical basis for the evaluation of pathological ocular findings. Additionally, the blood flow of the pecten oculi was assessed using 3D colour Doppler ultrasonography. Results: By means of 3D ultrasonography, the physiological structures in the avian eye could be demonstrated in their spatial context for the first time. In addition, the 3D appearance of the blood flow of the pecten oculi was shown. Conclusion and clinical relevance: 3D ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic addition to classical optical-based ophthalmological examination of the avian eye and becomes essential when the posterior segment of the eye is obscured, as, for example, in opacities of the anterior dioptric apparatus or in patients with haemorrhage in the anterior eye chamber. The method may significantly enhance ophthalmological diagnostics in birds, particularly in situations with frequently occurring posttrauma intraocular haemorrhage as well as retinal detachment or lesions of the pecten oculi.

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