Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Allen, H.; Gething, M. J.; Waterfield, M. D.; Klenk, H. D.
Recognition of viral glycoproteins by influenza A-specific cross- reactive cytolytic T lymphocytes.
In: The journal of experimental medicine, Vol. 151: pp. 945-958
Two populations of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated after influenza A virus infection can be distinguished into one with specificity for the sensitizing hemagglutinin type and a second with cross-reactivity for antigens induced by other type-A influenza viruses. The molecules carrying the antigenic determinants recognized by the cross-reactive CTL were studied. In L-929 cells abortively infected with fowl plague virus, matrix (M) protein synthesis is specifically inhibited, whereas the envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are synthesized and incorporated into the plasma membrane. These target cells were lysed by cross-reactive CTL. The envelope proteins of type A/Victoria virus were separated from the other virion components and reconstituted into lipid vesicles that lacked M protein that subsequently were used to prepare artificial target cells. Target-cell formation with vesicles was achieved by addition of fusion-active Sendai virus. These artificial target cells were also susceptible to lysis by cross-reactive CTL. In contrast to previous observations that suggested that the M protein of influenza viruses is recognized by these effector cells, we present evidence that the antigencic determinants induced by the viral glycoproteins are recognized.