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Lahmer, Marie; Glatz, Christiane; Seibold, Verena C. and Chuang, Lewis L. (2018): Looming Auditory Collision Warnings for Semi-Automated Driving: An ERP Study. In: Automotiveui'18: Proceedings of the 10Th Acm International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: pp. 310-319

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Looming sounds can be an ideal warning notification for emergency braking. This agrees with studies that have consistently demonstrated preferential brain processing for looming stimuli. This study investigates and demonstrates that looming sounds can similarly benefit emergency braking in managing a vehicle with adaptive cruise control (ACC). Specifically, looming auditory notifications induced the faster emergency braking times relative to a static auditory notification. Next, we compare the event-related potential (ERP) evoked by a looming notification, relative to its static equivalent. Looming notifications evoke a smaller fronto-central N2 amplitude than their static equivalents. Thus, we infer that looming sounds are consistent with the visual experience of an approaching collision and, hence, induced a corresponding performance benefit. Subjective ratings indicate no significant differences in the perceived workload across the notification conditions. Overall, this work suggests that auditory warnings should have congruent physical properties with the visual events that they warn for.

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