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Hoppe, Matthias; Knierim, Pascal; Kosch, Thomas; Funk, Markus; Futami, Lauren; Schneegass, Stefan; Henze, Niels; Schmidt, Albrecht ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3890-1990 and Machulla, Tonja (2018): VRHapticDrones: Providing Haptics in Virtual Reality through Quadcopters. In: 17Th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (Mum 2018): pp. 7-18

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We present VRHapticDrones, a system utilizing quadcopters as levitating haptic feedback proxy. A touchable surface is attached to the side of the quadcopters to provide unintrusive, flexible, and programmable haptic feedback in virtual reality. Since the users' sense of presence in virtual reality is a crucial factor for the overall user experience, our system simulates haptic feedback of virtual objects. Quadcopters are dynamically positioned to provide haptic feedback relative to the physical interaction space of the user. In a first user study, we demonstrate that haptic feedback provided by VRHapticDrones significantly increases users' sense of presence compared to vibrotactile controllers and interactions without additional haptic feedback. In a second user study, we explored the quality of induced feedback regarding the expected feeling of different objects. Results show that VRHapticDrones is best suited to simulate objects that are expected to feel either light-weight or have yielding surfaces. With VRHapticDrones we contribute a solution to provide unintrusive and flexible feedback as well as insights for future VR haptic feedback systems.

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