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Landry, Guillaume; Hua, Chia-ho (2018): Current state and future applications of radiological image guidance for particle therapy. In: Medical Physics, Vol. 45, No. 11, E1086-E1095
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In this review paper, we first give a short overview of radiological image guidance in photon radiotherapy, placing emphasis on the fact that linac based radiotherapy has outpaced particle therapy in the adoption of volumetric image guidance. While cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been an established technique in linac treatment rooms for almost two decades, the widespread adoption of volumetric image guidance in particle therapy, whether by means of CBCT or in-room CT imaging, is recent. This lag may be attributable to the bespoke nature and lower number of particle therapy installations, as well as the differences in geometry between those installations and linac treatment rooms. In addition, for particle therapy the so called shift invariance of the dose distribution rarely applies. An overview of the different volumetric image guidance solutions found at modern particle therapy facilities is provided, covering gantry, nozzle, C-arm, and couch-mounted CBCT as well different in-room CT configurations. A summary of the use of in-room volumetric imaging data beyond anatomy-based positioning is also presented as well as the necessary corrections to CBCT images for accurate water equivalent thickness calculation. Finally, the use of non-ionizing imaging modalities is discussed.