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Heneka, Caroline; Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo; Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Linden, Anja von der (2018): Cold dark energy constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, No. 3: pp. 3882-3894
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Abstract

We constrain cold dark energy of negligible sound speed using galaxy cluster abundance observations. In contrast to standard quasi-homogeneous dark energy, negligible sound speed implies clustering of the dark energy fluid at all scales, allowing us to measure the effects of dark energy perturbations at cluster scales. We compare those models and set the stage for using non-linear information from semi-analytical modelling in cluster growth data analyses. For this, we recalibrate the halo mass function with non-linear characteristic quantities, the spherical collapse threshold and virial overdensity, that account for model and redshift-dependent behaviours, as well as an additional mass contribution for cold dark energy. We present the first constraints from this cold dark matter plus cold dark energy mass function using our cluster abundance likelihood, which self-consistently accounts for selection effects, covariances and systematic uncertainties. We combine cluster growth data with cosmic microwave background, supernovae Ia and baryon acoustic oscillation data, and find a shift between cold versus quasi-homogeneous dark energy of up to 1 sigma. We make a Fisher matrix forecast of constraints attainable with cluster growth data from the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES). For DES, we predict similar to 50 per cent tighter constraints on (Omega(m), w) for cold dark energy versus wCDM models, with the same free parameters. Overall, we show that cluster abundance analyses are sensitive to cold dark energy, an alternative, viable model that should be routinely investigated alongside the standard dark energy scenario.