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Schötz, J.; Mitra, S.; Fuest, H.; Neuhaus, M.; Okell, W. A.; Förster, M.; Paschen, T.; Ciappina, M. F.; Yanagisawa, H.; Wnuk, P.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M. F. (2018): Nonadiabatic ponderomotive effects in photoemission from nanotips in intense midinfrared laser fields. In: Physical Review A, Vol. 97, No. 1, 13413
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Transient near fields around metallic nanotips drive many applications, including the generation of ultrafast electron pulses and their use in electronmicroscopy. We have investigated the electron emission from a gold nanotip driven by midinfrared few-cycle laser pulses. We identify a low-energy peak in the kinetic energy spectrum and study its shift to higher energies with increasing laser intensities from 1.7 to 8.9 x 10(11) W/cm(2). The experimental observation of the upshift of the low-energy peak is compared to a simple model and numerical simulations, which show that the decay of the near field on a nanometer scale results in nonadiabatic transfer of the ponderomotive potential to the kinetic energy of emitted electrons and in turn to a shift of the peak. We derive an analytic expression for the nonadiabatic ponderomotive shift, which, after the previously found quenching of the quiver motion, completes the understanding of the role of inhomogeneous fields in strong-field photoemission from nanostructures.