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Karshenboim, S. G. (2018): Accurate Determination of the Values of Fundamental Physical Constants: The Basis of the New "Quantum" SI Units. In: Physics of Particles and Nuclei, Vol. 49, No. 2: pp. 213-248
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The metric system appeared as the system of units designed for macroscopic (laboratory scale) measurements. The progress in accurate determination of the values of quantum constants (such as the Planck constant) in SI units shows that the capabilities in high-precision measurement of microscopic and macroscopic quantities in terms of the same units have increased substantially recently. At the same time, relative microscopic measurements (for example, the comparison of atomic transition frequencies or atomic masses) are often much more accurate than relative measurements of macroscopic quantities. This is the basis for the strategy to define units in microscopic phenomena and then use them on the laboratory scale, which plays a crucial role in practical methodological applications determined by everyday life and technologies. The international CODATA task group on fundamental constants regularly performs an overall analysis of the precision world data (the so-called Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants) and publishes their recommended values. The most recent evaluation was based on the data published by the end of 2014;here, we review the corresponding data and results. The accuracy in determination of the Boltzmann constant has increased, the consistency of the data on determination of the Planck constant has improved;it is these two dimensional constants that will be used in near future as the basis for the new definition of the kelvin and kilogram, respectively. The contradictions in determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton charge radius remain. The accuracy of determination of the fine structure constant and relative atomic weight of the electron has improved. Overall, we give a detailed review of the state of the art in precision determination of the values of fundamental constants. The mathematical procedure of the Adjustment, the new data and results are considered in detail. The limitations due to macroscopic properties of material standards (such as the International prototype of the kilogram) and the isotopic composition of substances involved in precision studies in general (as standard measures for the triple point of water) and, in particular, in the determination of the fundamental constants are discussed. The perspectives of the introduction of the new quantum units, which will be free from the mentioned problems, are considered. Many physicists feel no sympathy for the International system of units (SI), believing that it does not properly reflect the character of physical laws. In fact, there are three parallel systems, namely the systems of quantities, system of their units and the related standards. The definition of the units, in particular, the SI units, above all, reflects our ability to perform precision measurements of physical values under certain conditions, in particular, to create appropriate standards. This requirement is not related to the beauty of fundamental laws of nature. More accurate determination of the fundamental constants is one of the areas where we accumulate such experience.