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Kudla, Jörg; Becker, Dirk; Grill, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer; Hippler, Michael; Kummer, Ursula; Parniske, Martin; Romeis, Tina; Schumacher, Karin (2018): Advances and current challenges in calcium signaling. In: New Phytologist, Vol. 218, No. 2: pp. 414-431
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Abstract

Temporally and spatially defined changes in Ca2+ concentration in distinct compartments of cells represent a universal information code in plants. Recently, it has become evident that Ca2+ signals not only govern intracellular regulation but also appear to contribute to long distance or even organismic signal propagation and physiological response regulation. Ca2+ signals are shaped by an intimate interplay of channels and transporters, and during past years important contributing individual components have been identified and characterized. Ca2+ signals are translated by an elaborate toolkit of Ca2+-binding proteins, many of which function as Ca2+ sensors, into defined downstream responses. Intriguing progress has been achieved in identifying specific modules that interconnect Ca2+ decoding proteins and protein kinases with downstream target effectors, and in characterizing molecular details of these processes. In this review, we reflect on recent major advances in our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and cover emerging concepts and existing open questions that should be informative also for scientists that are currently entering this field of ever-increasing breath and impact.