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Weidle, Ulrich H.; Rohwedder, Ina; Birzele, Fabian; Weiss, Elisabeth H. and Schiller, Christian (2018): LST1: A multifunctional gene encoded in the MHC class III region. In: Immunobiology, Vol. 223, No. 11: pp. 699-708

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The LST1 gene is located in the MHC class III cluster between the MHC class I and II regions. While most genes in this cluster have been sufficiently characterised, a definitive function and expression pattern for LST1 still remains elusive. In the present review we describe its promotor, gene organisation, splice variants and expression in human tissues, cell lines and cancer. We focus on LST1 expression in inflammation and discuss known correlations with autoimmune diseases and cancer. Current data on LST1 polymorphisms and their known associations with pathologies are also discussed in detail. We summarize the potential functions that have been described for the full-length LST1 protein including its function as a transmembrane adaptor protein with inhibitory signal transduction and its role as a membrane scaffold facilitating the formation of tunnelling nanotubes. We also discuss further potential functions by compiling all known LST1-interacting proteins. Furthermore, we address knowledge gaps and conflictive issues regarding disease association, non-hematopoietic expression and the discrepancy between RNA and protein expression data.

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