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Rhauderwiek, Timo; Zhao, Haishuang; Hirschle, Patrick; Doeblinger, Markus; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; De Vos, Dirk; Wuttke, Stefan; Kolb, Ute and Stock, Norbert (2018): Highly stable and porous porphyrin-based zirconium and hafnium phosphonates - electron crystallography as an important tool for structure elucidation. In: Chemical Science, Vol. 9, No. 24: pp. 5467-5478 [PDF, 1MB]


The Ni-metallated porphyrin-based tetraphosphonic acid (Ni-tetra(4-phosphonophenyl)porphyrin, Ni-H8TPPP) was used for the synthesis of highly porous metal phosphonates containing the tetravalent cations Zr4+ and Hf4+. The compounds were thoroughly characterized regarding their sorption properties towards N-2 and H2O as well as thermal and chemical stability. During the synthesis optimization the reaction time could be substantially decreased under stirring from 24 to 3 h in glass vials. M-CAU-30, [M-2(Ni-H2TPPP)(OH/F)(2)]H2O (M = Zr, Hf) shows exceptionally high specific surface areas for metal phosphonates of a(BET) = 1070 and 1030 m(2) g(-1) for Zr- and Hf-CAU-30, respectively, which are very close/correspond to the theoretical values of 1180 and 1030 m(2) g(-1). CAU-30 is always obtained as mixtures with one mol ZrO2/HfO2 per formula unit as proven by TEM, electron diffraction, TG and elemental analysis. Hence experimentally derived specific surface areas are 970 and 910 m(2) g(-1), respectively. M-CAU-30 is chemically stable in the pH range 0 to 12 in HCl/NaOH and thermally up to 420 degrees C in air as determined by variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (VT-PXRD). The crystal structure of M-CAU-30 was determined by combining electron diffraction tomography for structure solution and powder X-ray diffraction data for the structure refinement. The crystal structure consists of chains of corner sharing MO6 octahedra interconnected by the partly deprotonated linker molecules Ni-H2TPPP6-. Thus 1D channels with pore diameters of 1.3 x 2.0 nm are formed. The redox activity of Zr-CAU-30 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry resulting in a reversible redox process at a half-wave potential of E-1/2 = -0.649 V.

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