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Jakob, André; Schachinger, Eva; Klau, Simon; Lehner, Anja; Ulrich, Sarah; Stiller, Brigitte; Zieger, Barbara (March 2020): Von Willebrand factor parameters as potential biomarkers for disease activity and coronary artery lesion in patients with Kawasaki disease. In: European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 179, No. 3: pp. 377-384
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Elevated von Willebrand factor (vWF):Antigen plasma levels have been observed in conjunction with cardiovascular diseases or vasculitis. The association of Kawasaki disease, a vascular inflammatory disease and vWF:Antigen, vWF:Collagen binding activity, and vWF multimers is unknown. We therefore investigated vWF parameters in 28 patients with acute Kawasaki disease in association with disease activity and coronary artery lesions. VWF:Antigen and vWF:Collagen binding activity were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay. The ratio of both (vWF:Collagen binding activity and VWF:Antigen) was calculated and vWF multimeric structure analysis performed. We analyzed the association between vWF parameters and our clinical data focusing on coronary artery outcome. VWF:Antigen and vWF:Collagen binding activity levels were significantly higher in the acute than in the disease's convalescence phase, and correlated positively with CRP levels. Neither variable was associated with coronary artery lesions. The vWF:Collagen binding activity/vWF:Antigen ratio, however, was significantly decreased in patients with a coronary artery lesion (z-score > 2; N = 10; mean ratio 0.96 vs. 0.64; p = 0.031) and even more so in those with a coronary artery aneurysm (z-score > 2.5; N = 8; mean ratio 0.94 vs. 0.55; p = 0.02). In a sub-analysis, those patients with a very low ratio in the acute phase presented a persistent coronary artery aneurysm at their 1-year follow-up.Conclusion: This study suggests that comprehensive analysis of vWF parameters may help to both monitor KD inflammation and facilitate the identification of those patients carrying an increased risk for coronary artery lesion.