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Mulay, Shrikant R.; Steiger, Stefanie; Shi, Chongxu; Anders, Hans‐Joachim (2020): A guide to crystal‐related and nano‐ or microparticle‐related tissue responses. In: The FEBS Journal, Vol. 287, No. 5: pp. 818-832
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Crystals and nano‐ and microparticles form inside the human body from intrinsic proteins, minerals, or metabolites or enter the body as particulate matter from occupational and environmental sources. Associated tissue injuries and diseases mostly develop from cellular responses to such crystal deposits and include inflammation, cell necrosis, granuloma formation, tissue fibrosis, and stone‐related obstruction of excretory organs. But how do crystals and nano‐ and microparticles trigger these biological processes? Which pathomechanisms are identical across different particle types, sizes, and shapes? In addition, which mechanisms are specific to the atomic or molecular structure of crystals or to specific sizes or shapes? Do specific cellular or molecular mechanisms qualify as target for therapeutic interventions? Here, we provide a guide to approach this diverse and multidisciplinary research domain. We give an overview about the clinical spectrum of crystallopathies, about shared and specific pathomechanisms as a conceptual overview before digging deeper into the specialty field of interest.