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Fürmetz, Julian; Patzler, Sven; Wolf, Florian; Degen, Nikolaus; Prall, Wolf Christian; Soo, Chris; Böcker, Wolfgang and Thaller, Peter Helmut (2020): Tibial and femoral osteotomies in varus deformities - radiological and clinical outcome. In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 21:201 [PDF, 903kB]


Background: Varus deformities of the knee are frequently corrected by osteotomies, which should be performed at the level of origin. But in contrast to high tibial osteotomies (HTO), little data exists for distal femoral osteotomies (DFO). This study evaluates radiological and clinical outcomes after valgisation osteotomies in the proximal tibia and distal femur.

Methods: We used an observational cohort study design and prospectively performed preoperative long standing radiographs (LSR), lateral x-rays and clinical questionnaires (SF-36, Lysholm score, VAS). Postoperative LSR and lateral x-rays were obtained on average 18 months postoperative and postoperative clinical questionnaires at final visit (mean follow up 46 months). A subgroup analysis of the different surgical techniques (oHTO vs. cDFO) was performed, with regards to radiological and clinical outcomes.

Results: Finally 28 osteotomies with medial tibial opening (oHTO) or lateral femoral closing (cDFO) wedge osteotomies in 25 consecutive patients (mean age 40 years) were identified. There were 17 tibal and 11 femoral procedures. All osteotomies were performed at the origin of deformity, which was of different etiology. The average deviation of the final HKA compared to the preoperative planning was 2.4° ± 0.4°. Overall, there was a significant improvement in all clinical scores (SF-36: 61.8 to 79.4, p < 0.001; Lysholm-score: 72.7 to 90.4, p < 0.001; VAS: 3 to 1, p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between surgical accuracy and outcome scores.

Conclusion: Valgisation osteotomies lead to a significant improvement in all clinical scores with the demonstrated treatment protocol. An appreciable proportion of varus deformities are of femoral origin. Since cDFO provides comparable radiological and clinical results as oHTO, this is an important treatment option for varus deformities of femoral origin.

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