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Dürr, Hans Roland; Grahneis, Ferdinand; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Knösel, Thomas; Birkenmaier, Christof; Jansson, Volkmar; Klein, Alexander (2019): Aneurysmal bone cyst: results of an off label treatment with Denosumab. In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 20:456
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Abstract

Background The treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) has evolved and less invasive methods have been tried. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody which inhibits osteoclasts. It has been shown to be effective in giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) of bone and hence promises some effect also in ABC. We report on 6 patients treated with Denosumab and compare our results to the cases already published. Methods Data of 6 patients with ABCs and patients whose treatment included Denosumab were retrospectively analyzed. Denosumab was used at a dose of 120 mg on days 1, 8, 15 and 29, and every 4 weeks thereafter. In some of these patients the dose was reduced at the end of the treatment. Clinical and radiological responses were evaluated. Results In 4 female and 2 male patients with a mean age of 17 years (range: 6–30 years) the lesions were located in the sacrum (2), in distal radius, distal femur, talus and pelvis. One of the sacral lesions healed after 12 months and has stayed stable for 3 years since. The second patient received 2 years of therapy with recalcification, but recurred 1 year later and is under renewed therapy. The pelvic lesion improved but recurred. This patient has a 13-years history of intermittent therapy including surgery, two pregnancies and remains in a stable situation. The lesion of the talus did not improve with Denosumab after surgery and was complicated by destruction of the ankle joint with osteoarthritis. Recurrent lesions of the distal femur and the distal radius, previously treated by curettage and bone grafting healed under Denosumab and have remained stable for 2 and 3 years, respectively. One case of severe hypercalcemia was observed in a 7-year old child 6 months after discontinuation of Denosumab. Conclusion Denosumab provides a treatment option for ABCs in anatomically critical locations. Adjuvant application might reduce the rate of local recurrence. In young patients, severe rebound hypercalcemia months after discontinuation of Denosumab may occur.