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Schmidt-Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Buchner, Alexander; Eze, Chukwuka; Rogowski, Paul; Schaefer, Christian; Ilhan, Harun; Li, Minglun; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Bartenstein, Peter; Ganswindt, Ute; Stief, Christian; Belka, Claus ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1287-7825 and Kretschmer, Alexander (2020): PSMA-positive nodal recurrence in prostate cancer. In: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Vol. 196: pp. 637-646 [PDF, 351kB]


Purpose This analysis compares salvage lymph node dissection (SLND) to salvage lymph node radiotherapy (SLNRT) of 68Ga-PSMA PET-positive nodal recurrences after radical prostatectomy (RPE). Methods A total of 67 SLNRT and 33 SLND consecutive patients with pelvic and/or para-aortic nodal recurrences after RPE were retrospectively analyzed. Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates (bRFS; PSA <0.2 ng/mL) were calculated according to Kaplan–Meier and survival curves were compared using the log rank test. For multivariable analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed (p < 0.05). Results Median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6–53 months) in SLND patients and 31 months (range, 3–56 months) in SLNRT patients (p = 0.027). SLNRT patients had significantly more tumours of pT3 and pT4 category (82% vs. 67%; p = 0.006), pathologically involved lymph nodes (45% vs. 27%; p = 0.001) and positive surgical margins (54% vs. 12%; p = 0.001) at time of RPE than SLND patients. PSA persistence after RPE was significantly more frequently observed in the SLNRT cohort (73% vs. 27%; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the distribution of PET-positive lymph nodes. Median PSA before SLND was higher than before SLNRT (3.07 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml; p = 0.393). The 2‑year bRFS was significantly higher in the SLNRT vs. the SLND cohort (92% vs. 30%; p = 0.001) with lower rates of distant metastases (21% vs. 52%; p = 0.002) and secondary treatments (5% vs. 39%; p = 0.011) irrespective of ongoing androgen deprivation therapy at last contact. In multivariable analysis, SLNRT was significantly associated with prolonged bRFS (regression coefficient 1.436, hazard ratio 4.204, 95% CI 1.789–9.878; p = 0.001). Conclusion Based on this retrospective study SLNRT might be the preferred treatment option for patients with nodal recurrence after previous RPE.

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