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Masouris, Ilias; Manz, Kirsi ORCID: 0000-0002-7740-4076; Pfirrmann, Markus; Dreyling, Martin; Angele, Barbara; Straube, Andreas; Langer, Sigrid; Huber, Marion; Koedel, Uwe; Baumgarten, Louisa von (2021): CXCL13 and CXCL9 CSF Levels in Central Nervous System Lymphoma-Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Prognostic Relevance. In: Frontiers in Neurology, Vol. 12
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Abstract

Background: Diagnostic delay and neurologic deterioration are still a problem for the treatment of rapidly progressing CNS lymphoma (CNSL); there is an unmet need for a diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield and limited risk, minimizing the time to the initiation of effective treatment. Methods: In this prospective monocentric study, we analyzed the utility of CXCL13 and CXCL9 as diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic biomarkers for CNSL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 155 consecutive patients admitted with brain lesions of various origins was collected. Levels of CXCL13 and CXCL9 were analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, CSF was analyzed during CNSL disease course (relapse, remission, progress) in 17 patients. Results: CXCL13 and CXCL9 CSF levels were significantly increased in patients with CNSL compared to control patients with lesions of other origin. Using logistic regression and a minimal-p-value approach, a cut-off value of 80 pg/ml for CXCL13 shows high sensitivity (90.7%) and specificity (90.1%) for the diagnosis of active CNSL. CXCL9 at a cut-off value of 84 pg/ml is less sensitive (61.5%) and specific (87.1%). Both cytokines correlate with the clinical course and response to therapy. Conclusions: Our results confirm the excellent diagnostic potential of CXCL13 and introduce CXCL9 as a novel albeit less powerful marker for PCNSL.