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Seyed-Emami, Kazem; Wilmsen, Markus; Fürsich, Franz T. (2021): A summary of the Jurassic System in North and East-Central Iran. In: Zitteliana, Vol. 94: pp. 99-156
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Abstract

The rocks of the Jurassic System in North and Central Iran are represented by very thick sedimentary successions reflecting the deposition during two tectono-stratigraphic megacycles, bounded by three important unconformities. The older (Early to early Middle Jurassic) cycle starts, after the Late Triassic closure of the Palaeotethys and the collision of the Iran Plate with the southern margin of Eurasia (Turan Plate), with an abrupt uplift of the Cimmerian Mountains around the Triassic–Jurassic boundary (Main-Cimmerian Event) and is terminated by the Mid-Cimmerian Tectonic Event in the mid-Bajocian. The predominantly siliciclastic sediments of this tectono-stratigraphic cycle are accommodated in the Ab-e-Haji Subgroup of the (upper) Shemshak Group. The Ab-e-Haji Subgroup consists of thick and widespread, partly coal-bearing siliciclastic strata and also records some important marine ingressions, especially in the Toarcian and Aalenian. The younger tectono-stratigraphic cycle starts with an extensive marine transgression in the Late Bajocian and ends around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary with the Late Cimmerian Tectonic Event. In the aftermath of the Mid-Cimmerian Tectonic Event, the Iran Plate was dissected into several structural units, the geological histories of which differed and so did their facies patterns. Thus, in North Iran two main sedimentary areas developed, namely the Alborz and Koppeh Dagh basins, which show moderate diffe-rences in lithology and thicknesses. However, the differentiation is much more pronounced on the Central-East Iranian Microcontinent, which comprises three N–S-oriented and independent structural units, i.e., from east to west the Lut, Tabas and Yazd blocks. During the Jurassic Period, the sea mostly covered the Tabas and Lut blocks, whereas the Yazd Block remained largely emergent. The lithologically diverse and numerous formations of the area are combined in the Magu and Bidou groups. Early to Early Middle Jurassic ammonite fau-nas of North and Central Iran are palaeobiogeographically closely related to Northwest European (Subboreal) ammonite faunas, allowing a similar biozonation. Concurrent with the Late Bajocian transgression, there is an abrupt change in faunal composition and the Middle and Late Jurassic ammonite faunas of North and Central Iran are much more similar to those of epicontinental seas bordering the nort-hern margin of the western Tethys and occupy an intermediate position between the Mediterranean and the Submediterranean Province. The results of the studies on ammonoid palaeobiogeography are in line with Early Jurassic palaeogeographic reconstructions that place the Iran Plate at fairly high palaeo-latitudes of about 45°N, followed by a rapid southward shift throughout the Middle and Late Jurassic to a position of about 30°N.