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Walter, Beate; Flock, Ulrike; Leykam, Christian; Otzdorff, Christiane; Simmet, Kilian; Hecht, Werner; Kempker, Lena; Aupperle-Lellbach, Heike; Reese, Sven ORCID: 0000-0002-4605-9791 (31. July 2021): Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration as a diagnostic tool to identify testicular tissue in canine disorders of sexual development. In: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may have their origin in alterations of the chromosomal, gonadal or phenotypic sex. Affected animals are usually presented because of ambiguous external genitalia, seldom because of reproductive disorders. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted in the gonads with higher amounts in males than in females and can be used to identify gonadal tissue in sexually normally developed dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic potential of serum AMH to identify testicular tissue in eleven dogs with DSD. The diagnostic procedures applied were: determination of the phenotypic sex (n=11), genital ultrasound (n=9), determination of the SRY gene (n=11), karyogram (n=6), gonadectomy (n=11), pathohistology of the gonads (n=10), serum AMH measurement (n=11). 39 female dogs described in a previous study and 19 male dogs with a normal spermiogram served as controls for the AMH serum concentrations in sexually intact dogs. The eleven dogs with DSD were classified as seven XY DSD and four XX DSD. Presumptive testes were obtained in ten dogs and one dog had an ovotestis combined with a testis. Mean serum AMH values of the dogs with DSD were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in male and female controls. The upper limit of the AMH test (≥ 23ng/ml) was reached in six dogs. High AMH concentrations have been described previously in cryptorchid dogs. One dog with a male phenotype and two with a female phenotype had AMH values within the range of the male controls, although all of them had cryptorchid testes. A Poodle, in which epididymis were identified but no definitive gonads, had an AMH concentration of the lower limit of the test (≤ 0.01 ng/ml), comparable to previously described castrated dogs. This study indicates that serum AMH levels are a useful diagnostic tool to identify testicular tissue in dogs with DSD and suggests the possible use of AMH to diagnose testicular dysgenesis.