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Morya, Edgard; Monte-Silva, Katia; Bikson, Marom; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Fonseca, Andre; Bocci, Tommaso; Farzan, Faranak; Chatterjee, Raaj; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; da Silva Machado, Daniel Gomes; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Mezger, Eva; Moscaleski, Luciane Aparecida; Pegado, Rodrigo; Sato, Joao Ricardo; Caetano, Marcelo Salvador; Sa, Katia Nunes; Tanaka, Clarice; Li, Li Min; Baptista, Abrahao Fontes; Okano, Alexandre Hideki (2019): Beyond the target area: an integrative view of tDCS-induced motor cortex modulation in patients and athletes. In: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, Vol. 16, No. 1, 141
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Abstract

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique used to modulate neural tissue. Neuromodulation apparently improves cognitive functions in several neurologic diseases treatment and sports performance. In this study, we present a comprehensive, integrative review of tDCS for motor rehabilitation and motor learning in healthy individuals, athletes and multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric conditions. We also report on neuromodulation mechanisms, main applications, current knowledge including areas such as language, embodied cognition, functional and social aspects, and future directions. We present the use and perspectives of new developments in tDCS technology, namely high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) which promises to overcome one of the main tDCS limitation (i.e., low focality) and its application for neurological disease, pain relief, and motor learning/rehabilitation. Finally, we provided information regarding the Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) in clinical applications, Cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) and its influence on motor learning, and TMS combined with electroencephalography (EEG) as a tool to evaluate tDCS effects on brain function.