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Schulze Schwering, M.; Kayange, P.; Rothe, C. (2019): Ocular manifestations in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome in Malawi-review of the literature illustrated by clinical cases. In: Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Vol. 257, No. 11: pp. 2343-2348
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Abstract

Purpose In Sub-Saharan Africa, manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy and/or cotrimoxazole. These patients often face severe ocular complications that lead to moderate to severe visual impairment or blindness. Methods Review of the current literature, illustrated by retrospective hospital-based case series: Eight patients at Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi with severe ocular complications like severe cicatrizing conjunctivitis with symblephara, corneal punctate erosions, corneal vascularization, and corneal ulceration are illustrated after the diagnosis of SJS/TEN. Results Light perception was reported in six (12 eyes) of them;two patients (4 eyes) had moderate visual impairment (6/36 and 6/18). In one patient, eye problems started after therapy with cotrimoxazole;in seven after therapy, with antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion SJS/TEN in Sub Saharan Africa correlates significantly with moderate visual impairment up to blindness. Early recognition of eye complications and involvement of ophthalmologists in the acute stage, early treatment with local steroids, and close monitoring for up to 6 months after the acute phase are crucial. Severe ocular complications seem to be more severe in dark skin phototype.