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Scheele, Christian B.; Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Schröder, Christian; Lazic, Igor; Grupp, Thomas M.; Müller, Peter E. (2019): Influence of bone density on morphologic cement penetration in minimally invasive tibial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: an in vitro cadaver study. In: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, 331
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Background Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is an established treatment option for anteromedial osteoarthritis. However, large registry studies report higher rates of aseptic loosening compared to total knee arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of bone density on morphological cement penetration. Moreover, an alternative regional bone density measuring technique was validated against the established bone mineral density assessment. Methods Components were implanted on the medial side of 18 fresh-frozen cadaver knees using a minimally invasive approach. Bone density has been quantified prior to implantation using Hounsfield units and bone mineral density. Morphological cement penetration has been assessed in different areas and was correlated with local bone density. Findings A highly significant correlation between Hounsfield units and trabecular bone mineral density was detected (r = 0.93;P < 0.0001), and local bone density was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior area (P = 0.0003). The mean cement penetration depth was 1.5 (SD 0.5 mm), and cement intrusion into trabecular bone was interrupted in 31.8% (SD 23.7%) of the bone-cement interface. Bone density was correlated significantly negative with penetration depth (r = - 0.31;P = 0.023) and positive with interruptions of horizontal interdigitating (r = + 0.33;P = 0.014). Cement penetration around the anchoring peg was not significantly correlated with bone density. Interpretation Areas with high bone density were characterized by significantly lower penetration depths and significantly higher areas without cement penetration. Anchoring pegs facilitate cement intrusion mechanically. Regional quantification of bone density using Hounsfield units is a simple but valuable extension to the established determination of bone mineral density.