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Udeh-Momoh, C.; Price, G.; Ropacki, M. T.; Ketter, N.; Andrews, T.; Arrighi, H. M.; Brashear, H. R.; Robb, C.; Bassil, D. T.; Cohn, M.; Curry, L. K.; Su, B.; Perera, D.; Giannakopoulou, P.; Car, J.; Ward, H. A.; Perneczky, R.; Novak, G. and Middleton, L. (2019): Prospective Evaluation of Cognitive Health and Related Factors in Elderly at Risk for Developing Alzheimer's Dementia: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. In: Jpad-Journal of Prevention of Alzheimers Disease, Vol. 6, No. 4: pp. 256-266

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Abstract

Background The CHARIOT PRO Main study is a prospective, non-interventional study evaluating cognitive trajectories in participants at the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) classified by risk levels for developing mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD). Objectives The study aimed to characterize factors and markers influencing cognitive and functional progression among individuals at-risk for developing MCI-AD, and examine data for more precise predictors of cognitive change, particularly in relation to APOE epsilon 4 subgroup. Design This single-site study was conducted at the Imperial College London (ICL) in the United Kingdom. Participants 60 to 85 years of age were classified as high, medium (amnestic or non-amnestic) or low risk for developing MCI-AD based on RBANS z-scores. A series of clinical outcome assessments (COAs) on factors influencing baseline cognitive changes were collected in each of the instrument categories of cognition, lifestyle exposure, mood, and sleep. Data collection was planned to occur every 6 months for 48 months, however the median follow-up time was 18.1 months due to early termination of study by the sponsor. Results 987 participants were screened, among them 690 participants were actively followed-up post baseline, of whom 165 (23.9%) were APOE epsilon 4 carriers;with at least one copy of the allele. The mean age was 68.73 years, 94.6% were white, 57.4% were female, and 34.8% had a Family History of Dementia with a somewhat larger percentage in the APOE epsilon 4 carrier group (42.4%) compared to the non-carrier group (32.4%). Over half of the participants were married and 53% had a Bachelor's or higher degree. Most frequently, safety events typical for this population consisted of upper respiratory tract infection (10.4%), falls (5.2%), hypertension (3.5%) and back pain (3.0%). CONCLUSION (clinical relevance): AD-related measures collected during the CHARIOT PRO Main study will allow identification and evaluation of AD risk factors and markers associated with cognitive performance from the pre-clinical stage. Evaluating the psycho-biological characteristics of these pre-symptomatic individuals in relation to their natural neurocognitive trajectories will enhance current understanding on determinants of the initial signs of cognitive changes linked to AD.

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