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Korhonen, Laura; Oikarinen, Sami; Lehtonen, Jussi; Mustonen, Neea; Tyni, Iiris; Niemela, Onni; Honkanen, Hanna; Huhtala, Heini; Ilonen, Jorma; Hamalainen, Anu-Maaria; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Lonnrot, Maria; Hyoty, Heikki; Harkonen, Taina; Ryhanen, Samppa; Siljander, Heli; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Ormisson, Anne; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svetlana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; Mutius, Erika von; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Kallionpaa, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Kondrashova, Anita; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjal; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2019): Rhinoviruses in infancy and risk of immunoglobulin E sensitization. In: Journal of Medical Virology, Vol. 91, No. 8: pp. 1470-1478
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Abstract

Previous data about the role of viruses in the development of allergic immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the possible associations between exposure to different viruses (rhinovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, and parechovirus) during the first year of life and IgE sensitization. Viruses were analyzed from stool samples collected monthly from infants participating in a prospective birth cohort study. From that study, 244 IgE sensitized case children and 244 nonsensitized control children were identified based on their allergen-specific IgE antibody levels at the age of 6, 18, and 36 months. Stool samples (n = 4576) from the case and control children were screened for the presence of rhinovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, and parechovirus RNA by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The study showed that rhinovirus was the most prevalent virus detected, present in 921 (20%) samples. None of the viruses were associated with IgE sensitization in the full cohort but after stratifying by sex, the number of rhinovirus positive samples was inversely associated with IgE sensitization in boys (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81;95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.94;P = 0.006). There was also a temporal relation between rhinoviruses and IgE sensitization, as rhinovirus exposure during the first 6 months of life was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent IgE sensitization in boys (OR: 0.76;95% CI: 0.6-0.94;P = 0.016). In conclusion, early exposure to rhinoviruses was inversely associated with IgE sensitization but this protective association was restricted to boys.

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