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Tsaur, Igor; Heidegger, Isabel; Kretschmer, Alexander; Borgmann, Hendrik; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Briganti, Alberto; de Visschere, Pieter; Mathieu, Romain; Valerio, Massimo; van den Bergh, Roderick; Ost, Piet; Mirvald, Cristian; Tilki, Derya; Ploussard, Guillaume; Surcel, Cristian (2019): Aggressive variants of prostate cancer - Are we ready to apply specific treatment right now? In: Cancer Treatment Reviews, Vol. 75: pp. 20-26
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Abstract

Recently, adoption of novel drugs for systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer has led to a striking improvement of response rate and survival in both hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant disease. In most cases, prostate cancer essentially depends on androgen receptor signaling axis, even in castration-resistant setting, and hence may be targeted by second generation hormonal therapy. However, a subset of patients bears androgen-independent cancer biology with a short-term response to hormonal treatment, early and extensive visceral metastases, low PSA levels and poor outcomes. Identification and specific management of these rapidly fatal malignancies is of an unmet medical need since their classification and utilized therapeutic regimens vary significantly. Unfortunately, molecular pathways have not been sufficiently elucidated yet in order to provide an effective targeted treatment with a prolonged response. Lack of diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for these cancers makes successful counteractions against them even more sophisticated. In this comprehensive review, we aimed at summarizing the current body of literature reporting on causal molecular machinery as well as diagnostic and therapeutic concepts of aggressive prostate tumors and draw clinically relevant conclusions for the up-to-date sensible disease management.