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Karabulutoglu, Melis; Finnon, Rosemary; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Friedl, Anna A. and Badie, Christophe (2019): Influence of diet and metabolism on hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia development following ionizing radiation exposure. In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, Vol. 95, No. 4: pp. 452-479

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Purpose: The review aims to discuss the prominence of dietary and metabolic regulators in maintaining hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, long-term self-renewal, and differentiation. Results: Most adult stem cells are preserved in a quiescent, nonmotile state in vivo which acts as a "protective state" for stem cells to reduce endogenous stress provoked by DNA replication and cellular respiration as well as exogenous environmental stress. The dynamic balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation is critical for supporting a functional blood system throughout life of an organism. Stress-conditions, for example ionizing radiation exposure can trigger the blood forming HSCs to proliferate and migrate through extramedullary tissues to expand the number of HSCs and increase hematopoiesis. In addition, a wealth of investigation validated that deregulation of this balance plays a critical pathogenic role in various different hematopoietic diseases including the leukemia development. Conclusion: The review summarizes the current knowledge on how alterations in dietary and metabolic factors could alter the risk of leukemia development following ionizing radiation exposure by inhibiting or even reversing the leukemic progression. Understanding the influence of diet, metabolism, and epigenetics on radiation-induced leukemogenesis may lead to the development of practical interventions to reduce the risk in exposed populations.

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