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Wunderlich, G.; Abicht, A.; Brunn, A.; Daimagueler, H. -S.; Schroeter, M.; Fink, G. R.; Lehmann, H. C. and Cirak, S. (2019): Kongenitale myasthene Syndrome im Erwachsenenalter. Diagnostisch herausfordernd, selten, aber behandelbar. In: Nervenarzt, Vol. 90, No. 2: pp. 148-159

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The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) represent aheterogeneous group of diseases with abroad spectrum of phenotypes. The common characteristic is an inherited genetic defect of the neuromuscular junction. Although in some patients the specific gene defect remains to be detected, the increasing identification of causative genes in recent years has already provided unique insights into the functionality of structural proteins at the neuromuscular junction. Neonatal and early childhood onset is observed in most CMS subtypes;however, late onset in adolescence or adulthood also occurs and establishing the diagnosis at these stages imposes particular challenges. To enable appropriate therapeutic interventions for an at least in principle treatable condition, determining the genetic cause is warranted. In this overview, the critical clinical and diagnostic features of the different CMS subtypes are presented and illustrated using typical cases. Furthermore, specific diagnostic clues are outlined. Finally, the overlap between CMS and muscular dystrophies is discussed. Illustrating characteristic patient examples, the essential clinical and additional diagnostic findings of various CMS subtypes and special diagnostic indications are presented.

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