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Abdiyeva, Karlygash; Turebekov, Nurkeldi; Dmitrovsky, Andrey; Tukhanova, Nur; Shin, Anna; Yeraliyeva, Lyazat; Heinrich, Norbert; Hoelscher, Michael; Yegemberdiyeva, Ravilya; Shapiyeva, Zhanna; Kachiyeva, Zulfiya; Zhalmagambetova, Aliya; Montag, Josef; Dobler, Gerhard; Zinner, Josua; Wagner, Edith; Frey, Stefan and Essbauer, Sandra (2019): Seroepidemiological and molecular investigations of infections with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan. In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 78: pp. 121-127

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Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) in endemic (Kyzylorda) and non-endemic (Almaty) oblasts of Kazakhstan. Methods: Paired serum samples from 802 patients with FUO were collected. Serum samples were investigated by ELISA to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against CCHFV. Sera with suspected acute infection were further investigated by RT-PCR to detect the viral RNA. Results: IgG antibodies were detected in 12.7% of the sera from both oblasts. Acute infection was shown by IgM ELISA in four patients from Kyzylorda, with only one developing severe CCHF. Viral RNA was found by RT-PCR in the other three patients' sera. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S segments revealed CCHFV genotype Asia 2 and a possible reassortment between the genotypes Asia 1/Asia 2. Animal husbandry, such as working with cattle and horses, was significantly associated with CCHFV seropositivity. Conclusions: The antibodies and viral RNA detected in sera indicate that mild or even asymptomatic CCHFV infections are presented in Kazakhstan. This study describes the circulation of CCHFV in the so far non-endemic Almaty oblast for the first time. In conclusion, physicians treating patients with FUO in Kazakhstan should be aware of mild CCHF. (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.

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