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Chamseddine, Mohamad; Breden, Sebastian; Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Müller, Peter E.; Chevalier, Yan (2019): Periprosthetic bone quality affects the fixation of anatomic glenoids in total shoulder arthroplasty: in vitro study. In: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Vol. 28, No. 1, E18-E28
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Abstract

Background: Glenoid loosening, a common complication of shoulder arthroplasty, could relate to implant design and bone quality. However, the role of bone density has not been tested experimentally yet. In this study, tests on cadaveric specimens of varying bone density were performed to evaluate the effects of bone quality on loosening of typical anatomic glenoid implants. Methods: Cadaveric scapulae scanned with a quantitative computed tomography scanner to determine bone mineral density (BMD) were implanted with either pegged or keeled cemented glenoid components and tested under constant glenohumeral load while a humeral head component was moved cyclically in the inferior and superior directions. Implant superior and inferior edge lifting, defined as displacement from the underlying bone, was measured with linear variable differential transducers until we reached 23,000 test cycles, and statistical testing was performed for differences in edge lifting due to implant design and related to periprosthetic BMD. Results: Edge lifting was statistically significant at all time points, but on average, implant design had no effect. Lifting was highest in specimens in which BMD below the lifting edge was lower, with trends of increased displacement with decreased BMD. Conclusions: Implant lifting was greater in glenoids of lower bone density for both implant designs. This finding suggests that fixation failure will most likely occur in bone of lower density and that the fixation design itself may play a secondary role. (C) 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.