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Mikulska, Malgorzata; Cesaro, Simone; de Lavallade, Hugues; Di Blasi, Roberta; Einarsdottir, Sigrun; Gallo, Giuseppe; Rieger, Christina; Engelhard, Dan; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Ljungman, Per; Cordonnier, Catherine; Akova, Murat; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Averbuch, Diana; Bergeron, Anne; Blijlevens, Nicole; de Sousa, Aida Botelho; Busca, Alessandro; Calandra, Thierry; Crocchiolo, Roberto; De Greef, Julien; de la Camara, Rafael; Donnelly, Peter; Drgona, Lubos; Duarte, Rafael; Einsele, Hermann; Greinix, Hildegard; Herbrecht, Raoul; Hill, Joshua; Hubacek, Petr; Kassa, Csaba; Klyasova, Galina; Koltan, Sylwia; Lortholary, Olivier; Lundgren, Jens; Maertens, Johan; Martino, Rodrigo; Maschmeyer, Georg; Mellinghoff, Sibylle; Navarro, David; Nosari, Anna Maria; Pagano, Livio; Paukssen, Karlis; Penack, Olaf; Racil, Zdenek; Robin, Christine; Roilides, Emmanuel; Rovira, Montserrat; Slavin, Monica; Styczynski, Jan; Thiebaut, Anne; Viscoli, Claudio; Ward, Katherine; Wenneras, Christine (2019): Vaccination of patients with haematological malignancies who did not have transplantations: guidelines from the 2017 European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL 7). In: Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, No. 6, E188-E199
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Patients with haematological malignancies are at high risk of infection because of various mechanisms of humoral and cell-mediated immune deficiencies, which mainly depend on underlying disease and specific therapies. Some of these infections are vaccine preventable. However, these malignancies are different from each other, and the treatment approaches are diverse and rapidly evolving, so it is difficult to have a common programme for vaccination in a haematology ward. Additionally, because of insufficient training about the topic, vaccination is an area often neglected by haematologists, and influenced by cultural differences, even among health-care workers, in compliance to vaccines. Several issues are encountered when addressing vaccination in haematology: the small size of the cohorts that makes it difficult to show the clinical benefits of vaccination, the subsequent need to rely on biological parameters, their clinical pertinence not being established in immunocompromised patients, scarcity of clarity on the optimal timing of vaccination in complex treatment schedules, and the scarcity of data on long-term protection in patients receiving treatments. Moreover, the risk of vaccine-induced disease with live-attenuated vaccines strongly limits their use. Here we summarise guidelines for patients without transplantations, and address the issue by the haematological group-myeloid and lymphoid-of diseases, with a special consideration for children with acute leukaemia.

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