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Wenzel, Christoph; Kuechler, Andrea; Strube, Christina and Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela (2019): Paramphistomidose – eine Übersicht zu Epidemiologie und klinischer Symptomatik. In: Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grosstiere Nutztiere, Vol. 47, No. 3: pp. 184-191

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Paramphistosis is a globally occurring parasitic disease in various ruminants caused by a range of rumen flukes (including Paramphistomum cervi, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni). In Europe, local occurrences of rumen fluke infection in domestic and wild ruminants have been described for decades. There is now evidence that paramphistomidosis is gaining in importance, because high prevalence rates were reported in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Belgium and The Netherlands. Current prevalence data from Germany are lacking. In recent investigations in northern Germany, Hesse and Bavaria, C. daubneyi was detected, which is currently the most prevalent rumen fluke in Europe. The development of therumen fluke is linked to aquatic snails as intermediate hosts. C. daubneyi and the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica share in the course of their development the same intermediate snail host, Galba truncatula. The definitive ruminant host takes up infective metacercaria. In the small intestine, the young flukes excyst and attach to the duodenum. Subsequently, they migrate to the rumen, where, as adults, they begin to release eggs. The infection can lead to severe diarrhea during the intestinal phase and death at high infection intensity. Ruminal paramphistomidosis is subclinical in most cases. Currently, coproscopic detection by the sedimentation method is the available diagnostic tool. Because of similar morphology, there is a risk of confusion with the eggs of the liver fluke F. hepatica. Paramphistomidosis can be treated with oxyclozanide. There are conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of other drugs. Therefore, prophylaxis of this parasitosis is important. Because of the similar epidemiology, control recommendations are based on those for the prevention of fasciolosis. Whether paramphistomidosis is also an emerging infectious disease in Germany cannot be currently assessed.

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