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Hsieh, S.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Zu, C.; Mittiga, T.; Smart, T. J.; Machado, F.; Kobrin, B.; Hoehn, T. O.; Rui, N. Z.; Kamrani, M.; Chatterjee, S.; Choi, S.; Zaletel, M.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Moore, J. E.; Levitas, V.; Jeanloz, R. and Yao, N. Y. (2019): Imaging stress and magnetism at high pressures using a nanoscale quantum sensor. In: Science, Vol. 366, No. 6471

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Pressure alters the physical, chemical, and electronic properties of matter. The diamond anvil cell enables tabletop experiments to investigate a diverse landscape of high-pressure phenomena. Here, we introduce and use a nanoscale sensing platform that integrates nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers directly into the culet of diamond anvils. We demonstrate the versatility of this platform by performing diffraction-limited imaging of both stress fields and magnetism as a function of pressure and temperature. We quantify all normal and shear stress components and demonstrate vector magnetic field imaging, enabling measurement of the pressure-driven alpha <-> epsilon phase transition in iron and the complex pressure-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium. A complementary NV-sensing modality using noise spectroscopy enables the characterization of phase transitions even in the absence of static magnetic signatures.

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