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Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M. (2019): Physics of arbitrarily doped Kondo lattices: From a commensurate insulator to a heavy Luttinger liquid and a protected helical metal. In: Physical Review B, Vol. 100, No. 16, 165110
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We study one-dimensional Kondo lattices (KLs) which consist of itinerant electrons interacting with Kondo impurities (KIs)-localized quantum magnetic moments. We focus on KLs with isotropic exchange interaction between electrons and KIs and with a high KI density. The latter determines the principal role of the indirect interaction between KIs for the low-energy physics. Namely, the Kondo physics becomes suppressed and all properties are governed by spin ordering. We present a comprehensive analytical theory of such KLs at an arbitrary doping and predict a variety of regimes with different electronic phases. They range from commensurate insulators (at filling factors 1/2, 1/4, and 3/4) to metals with strongly interacting conduction electrons (close to these three special cases) to an exotic phase of a helical metal. The helical metals can provide a unique platform for realization of an emergent protection of ballistic transport in quantum wires. We compare our theory with previously obtained numerical results and discuss possible experiments where the theory could be tested.