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Kempter, Susanne; Khmelinskaia, Alena; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Schwille, Petra; Jungmann, Ralf; Liedl, Tim and Bae, Wooli (2019): Single Particle Tracking and Super-Resolution Imaging of Membrane-Assisted Stop-and-Go Diffusion and Lattice Assembly of DNA Origami. In: ACS Nano, Vol. 13, No. 2: pp. 996-1002

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DNA nanostructures offer the possibility to mimic functional biological membrane components due to their nanometer-precise shape configurability and versatile biochemical functionality. Here we show that the diffusional behavior of DNA nanostructures and their assembly into higher order membrane-bound lattices can be controlled in a stop-and-go manner and that the process can be monitored with super-resolution imaging. The DNA structures are transiently immobilized on glass-supported lipid bilayers by changing the mono- and divalent cation concentrations of the surrounding buffer. Using DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) super-resolution microscopy, we confirm the fixation of DNA origami structures with different shapes. On mica-supported lipid bilayers, in contrast, we observe residual movement. By increasing the concentration of NaCl and depleting MgCl2, a large fraction of DNA structures restarts to diffuse freely on both substrates. After addition of a set of oligonucleotides that enables three Y-shaped monomers to assemble into a three-legged shape (triskelion), the triskelions can be stopped and super-resolved. Exchanging buffer and adding another set of oligonucleotides triggers the triskelions to diffuse and assemble into hexagonal 2D lattices. This stop-and-go imaging technique provides a way to control and observe the diffusional behavior of DNA nanostructures on lipid membranes that could also lead to control of membrane associated cargos.

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