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Zaffagnini, Mirko; Fermani, Simona; Marchand, Christophe H.; Costa, Alex; Sparla, Francesca; Rouhier, Nicolas; Geigenberger, Peter; Lemaire, Stephane D.; Trost, Paolo (2019): Redox Homeostasis in Photosynthetic Organisms: Novel and Established Thiol-Based Molecular Mechanisms. In: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Vol. 31, No. 3: pp. 155-210
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Abstract

Recent Advances: This review highlights established and novel thiol-based regulatory pathways underlying the functional facets and significance of redox biology in photosynthetic organisms. In the last decades, the field of redox regulation has largely expanded and this work is aimed at giving the right credit to the importance of thiol-based regulatory and signaling mechanisms in plants. Critical Issues: This cannot be all-encompassing, but is intended to provide a comprehensive overview on the structural/molecular mechanisms governing the most relevant thiol switching modifications with emphasis on the large genetic and functional diversity of redox controllers (i.e., redoxins). We also summarize the different proteomic-based approaches aimed at investigating the dynamics of redox modifications and the recent evidence that extends the possibility to monitor the cellular redox state in vivo. The physiological relevance of redox transitions is discussed based on reverse genetic studies confirming the importance of redox homeostasis in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Future Directions: In conclusion, we can firmly assume that redox biology has acquired an established significance that virtually infiltrates all aspects of plant physiology.