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Burstrom, Kristina; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Leidl, Reiner; Helgesson, Gert; Rolfson, Ola; Henriksson, Martin (2020): Experience-Based Swedish TTO and VAS Value Sets for EQ-5D-5L Health States. In: Pharmacoeconomics, Vol. 38, No. 8: pp. 839-856
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Abstract

Background and Objective: Although value sets for the five-level version of the generic health-related quality-of-life instrument EQ-5D are emerging, there is still no value set available in the literature based on time trade-off valuations made by individuals experiencing the valued health states. The aim of this study was to estimate experience-based value sets for the EQ-5D-5L for Sweden using time trade-off and visual analogue scale valuation methods. Methods In a large, cross-sectional, population-based, self-administered postal health survey, the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system, EQ visual analogue scale and a time trade-off question were included. Time trade-off and visual analogue scale valuations of the respondent's current health status were used in statistical modelling to estimate a single-index value of health for each of the 3125 health states. Ordinary least-squares and generalised linear models were estimated with the main effect within each of the five dimensions represented by 20 dummy variables reflecting the additional decrement in value for levels 2-5 when the severity increases by one level sequentially beginning from having no problem. Interaction variables representing the occurrence of severity levels in at least one of the dimensions were tested: severity level 2 or worse (N2);severity level 3 or worse (N3);severity level 4 or worse (N4);severity level 5 (N5). Results A total of 896 health states (28.7% of the 3125 possible EQ-5D-5L health states) were reported by the 25,867 respondents. Visual analogue scale (n = 23,899) and time trade-off (n = 13,381) responders reported valuations of their currently experienced health state. The preferred regression models used ordinary least-squares estimation for both time trade-off and visual analogue scale values and showed consistency in all coefficients after combining certain levels. Levels 4 and 5 for the dimensions of mobility, self-care and usual activities were combined in the time trade-off model. Including the interaction variable N5, indicating severity level 5 in at least one of the five dimensions, made it possible to distinguish between the two worst severity levels where no other dimension is at level 5 as this coefficient is applied only once. In the visual analogue scale regression model, levels 4 and 5 of the mobility dimension were combined. The interaction variables N2-N4 were included, indicating that each of these terms reflect a statistically significant decrement in visual analogue scale value if any of the dimensions is at severity level 2, 3 or 4, respectively. Conclusions: Time trade-off and visual analogue scale value sets for the EQ-5D-5L are now available for Sweden. The time trade-off value set is the first such value set based on experience-based time trade-off valuation. For decision makers with a preference for experience-based valuations of health states from a representative population-based sample, the reported value sets may be considered fit for purpose to support resource allocation decision as well as evaluating population health and healthcare performance.