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Escher, F.; Senoner, M.; Doerler, J.; Zaruba, M. M.; Messner, M.; Mussner-Seeber, C.; Ebert, M.; Ensinger, C.; Mair, A.; Kroiss, A.; Ulmer, H.; Schneiderbauer-Porod, S.; Ebner, C.; Poelzl, G. (2020): When and how do patients with cardiac amyloidosis die? In: Clinical Research in Cardiology, Vol. 109, No. 1: pp. 78-88
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Background: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an underappreciated cause of morbidity and mortality. Light-chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis have different disease trajectories. No data are available on subtype-specific modes of death (MOD) in patients with CA. Methods and results We retrospectively investigated 66 with AL and 48 with wild-type ATTR amyloidosis (ATTRwt) from 2000 to 2018. ATTRwt differed from AL by age (74.6 +/- 5.4 years vs. 63 +/- 10.8 years), posterior wall thickness (16.8 +/- 3.3 mm vs. 14.3 +/- 2.2 mm), left ventricular mass index (180.7 +/- 63.2 g/m(2) vs. 133.5 +/- 42.2 g/m(2)), and the proportions of male gender (91.7% vs. 59.1%), atrial enlargement (92% vs. 68.2%) and atrial fibrillation (50% vs. 12.1%). In AL NYHA Functional Class and proteinuria (72.7% vs. 39.6%) were greater;mean arterial pressure (84.4 +/- 13.5 mmHg vs. 90.0 +/- 11.3 mmHg) was lower. Unadjusted 5-year mortality rate was 65% in AL-CA vs. 44% in the ATTRwt group. Individuals with AL-CA were 2.28 times ([95%CI 1.27-4.10];p = 0.006) more likely to die than were individuals with ATTRwt-CA. Information on MOD was available in 56 (94.9%) of 59 deceased patients. MOD was cardiovascular in 40 (66.8%) and non-cardiovascular in 16 (27.1%) patients. Cardiovascular [28 (68.3%) vs. 13 (80%)] death events were distributed equally between AL and ATTRwt (p = 0.51). Conclusion Our data indicate no differences in MOD between patients with AL and ATTRwt cardiac amyloidosis despite significant differences in clinical presentation and disease progression. Cardiovascular events account for more than two-thirds of fatal casualties in both groups. [GRAPHICS] .