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Scheele, Christian B.; Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Schroeder, Christian; Lenze, Florian; Grupp, Thomas M.; Müller, Peter E. (2020): Effect of bone density and cement morphology on biomechanical stability of tibial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. In: Knee, Vol. 27, No. 2: pp. 587-597
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Abstract

Background: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) offers good long-term survivorship and superior kinematics and function compared with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, revision rates arc higher with aseptic loosening representing a major cause. Biomechanical stability depends on cement penetration. The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of cement morphology and bone density on primary stability of tibial UKA under physiological loading conditions in human tibiae. Methods: Thirty-six tibial trays were implanted in fresh-frozen human cadaver knees and tested for primary stability using dynamic compression-shear testing. Prior to implantation, bone density had been quantified for all 18 tibiae. Postoperatively, cement penetration has been assessed on frontal cuts based on eight predefined parameters. The influence of bone density and cement morphology on biomechanical stability was determined using correlation and linear regression analysis. Results: Mean failure load was 2691 +/- 832.9 N, mean total cement thickness was 2.04 +/- 0.37 mm, mean cement penetration was 1.54 +/- 033 mm and mean trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was 107.1 +/- 29.3 mg/ml. There was no significant correlation between failure load and cement morphology (P > .05). Failure load was significantly positive correlated with trabecular BMD (r = 0.843;P < .0001) and cortical BMD (r = 0.432;P = .0136). Conclusions: Simulating physiological loading conditions, the failure load of tibial UKA is linearly dependent on the trabecular BMD. The observed parameters of cementation morphology seem capable of preventing failure at the bone-cement interface before inherent bone stability is reached. Further research is required to assess the usefulness of a preoperative assessment of bone quality for patient selection in UKA.