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Zheng, Yan; Wu, Chao; Yang, Jimeng; Zhao, Yue; Jia, Huliang; Xue, Min; Xu, Da; Yang, Feng; Fu, Deliang; Wang, Chaoqun; Hu, Beiyuan; Zhang, Ze; Li, Tianen; Yan, Shican; Wang, Xuan; Nelson, Peter J.; Bruns, Christiane; Qin, Lunxiu and Dong, Qiongzhu (2020): Insulin-like growth factor 1-induced enolase 2 deacetylation by HDAC3 promotes metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, Vol. 5, No. 1, 53

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Enolase 2 (ENO2) is a key glycolytic enzyme in the metabolic process of glycolysis, but its potential function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unclear. In this study, we observed a significant overexpression of ENO2 in PDAC tissues, and its expression was correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis in PDAC patients. K394 was identified as a major acetylation site in ENO2 that regulates its enzymatic activity, cell metabolism and PDAC progression. Knockdown of ENO2 suppressed tumor growth and liver metastasis in PDAC. Re-expression of wild-type (WT) ENO2, but not the K394 acetylation mimetic mutant, could reverse the decreased tumor malignancy. We further characterized histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) as the potential deacetylase and acetyltransferase for ENO2, respectively. HDAC3-mediated deacetylation was shown to lead to ENO2 activation and enhancement of glycolysis. Importantly, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was found to decrease K394 acetylation and stimulate ENO2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway facilitated the phosphorylation of HDAC3 on S424, which promoted K394 deacetylation and activation of ENO2. Linsitinib, an oral small-molecule inhibitor of IGF-1R, could inhibit IGF-1-induced ENO2 deacetylation by HDAC3 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, linsitinib showed a different effect on the growth and metastasis of PDAC depending on the overexpression of WT versus K394-mutant ENO2. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which acetylation negatively regulates ENO2 activity in the metastasis of PDAC by modulating glycolysis. Blockade of IGF-1-induced ENO2 deacetylation represents a promising strategy to prevent the development of PDAC.

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