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Mulazzani, Elisabeth; Zolyniak, Nicole; Noe, Elisabeth; Mulazzani, Matthias; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Kuempfel, Tania; Kraft, Eduard (2020): Clinical and psychological phenomenology of pain in autoinflammatory diseases. In: BMC Rheumatology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 71
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BackgroundPain is the clinical hallmark of patients in patients with autoinflammatory diseases (AID) caused by variants of the NLRP3-, MEFV- or TNFRSF1A gene. However, no systematical analysis of the clinical and psychological presentation of pain has been performed to date.MethodsTwenty-one symptomatic patients with variants in the NLRP3-, MEFV- and TNFRSF1A gene and clinical signs suggestive of an AID were retrospectively included in this monocentric cross-sectional case-series study. Patients were examined and interviewed using the German pain questionnaire. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was applied to screen patients for anxiety and depression.ResultsTwenty out of 21 AID patients (95%) reported pain at the time of examination. Mean current pain intensity in all AID patients comprised 3.61.3 and mean maximum pain intensity was 7.0 +/- 1.6 on a 11-point numeric ranging scale (NRS). In 15 patients (71%), pain was present for more than 60months. Ten patients (48%) experienced recurrent attacks with asymptomatic intervals and 7 patients (33%) suffered from constant pain, while 4 patients (19%) experienced both. Nociceptive pain including musculoskeletal and visceral affection was the most prominent type of pain (n =20;95%). Pain symptoms were treated continuously with analgesic or co-analgesic drugs in 10 patients (48%). Five patients (24%) have been positively screened for concomitant depression or anxiety.ConclusionsEarly and prompt diagnosis is necessary to provide multimodal pain treatment and to avoid the development of chronic pain in patients with AID.