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Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Stallhofer, Johannes; Wolf, Christiane; Dütschler, Joel; Truniger, Samuel; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Lohse, Peter and Brand, Stephan (2020): Development of a uniform, very aggressive disease phenotype in all homozygous carriers of the NOD2 mutation p.Leu1007fsX1008 with Crohn's disease and active smoking status resulting in ileal stenosis requiring surgery.
In: PLOS One 15(7), e0236421 [PDF, 881kB]


Background: NOD2variants are the strongest genetic predictors for susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). However, the clinical value ofNOD2on an individual patient level remains controversial. We aimed to define the predictive power of the majorNOD2mutations regarding complicated CD in a large single center cohort. Methods 1076 CD patients were prospectively genotyped for the three common CD-associatedNOD2mutations rs2066844, rs2066845, and rs2066847, followed by detailed genotype-phenotype analyses. Results Overall, 434 CD patients (40.3%) carried at least one of the three mainNOD2mutations. A significantly higher minor allele frequency (15.6%) of theNOD2frameshift mutation p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847) was seen in patients with aggressive disease compared to 8.2% in patients with mild disease (p = 2.6 x 10(-5)). Moreover, a total of 54 CD patients (5.0%) were homozygous for thisNOD2frameshift mutation. 100% of these patients had ileal disease compared to 82% ofNOD2wild-type carriers (p<0.0001). In homozygous carriers of theNOD2frameshift mutation, 87% presented with ileal stenosis, 68.5% had fistulas, and 72.2% required CD-related surgery despite immunosuppressive therapy in 87% of these patients. All homozygous carriers of the 1007fs mutation who were active smokers had ileal stenosis and required CD-related surgery. Conclusion Homozygosity for Leu1007fsX1008 is an excellent biomarker for predicting complicated CD on an individual patient level. Active smoking and homozygosity for this mutation is associated with a 100% risk for developing ileal stenosis requiring CD-related surgery. In these patients, smoking cessation and early initiation of immunosuppressive strategies may be beneficial.

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