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Azaryah, Hatim; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Martin-Perez, Cristina; Garcia-Santos, Jose Antonio; Martinez-Zaldivar, Cristina; Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Campos, Daniel; Koletzko, Berthold; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Catena, Andres; Campoy, Cristina (2020): Effects of Maternal Fish Oil and/or 5-Methyl-Tetrahydrofolate Supplementation during Pregnancy on Offspring Brain Resting-State at 10 Years Old: A Follow-Up Study from the NUHEAL Randomized Controlled Trial. In: Nutrients, Vol. 12, No. 9, 2701
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Recent studies have shown that maternal supplementation with folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) during pregnancy may affect children's brain development. We aimed at examining the potential long-term effect of maternal supplementation with fish oil (FO) and/or 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) on the brain functionality of offspring at the age of 9.5-10 years. The current study was conducted as a follow-up of the Spanish participants belonging to the Nutraceuticals for a Healthier Life (NUHEAL) project;57 children were divided into groups according to mother's supplementation and assessed through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning and neurodevelopment testing. Independent component analysis and double regression methods were implemented to investigate plausible associations. Children born to mothers supplemented with FO (FO and FO + 5-MTHF groups, n = 33) showed weaker functional connectivity in the default mode (DM) (angular gyrus), the sensorimotor (SM) (motor and somatosensory cortices) and the fronto-parietal (FP) (angular gyrus) networks compared to the No-FO group (placebo and 5-MTHF groups, n = 24) (P-FWE < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences were found regarding the neuropsychological tests, except for a trend of better results in an object recall (memory) test. Considering the No-FO group, the aforementioned networks were associated negatively with attention and speed-processing functions. Mother's FO supplementation during pregnancy seems to be able to shape resting-state network functioning in their children at school age and appears to produce long-term effects on children ' s cognitive processing.