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Ulrich, Sebastian and Schaefer, Cornelius (2020): Toxin Production by Stachybotrys chartarum Genotype S on Different Culture Media. In: Journal of Fungi, Vol. 6, No. 3, 159

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Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum had been linked to severe health problems in humans and animals, which occur after exposure to the toxic secondary metabolites of this mold. S. chartarum had been isolated from different environmental sources, ranging from culinary herbs and improperly stored fodder to damp building materials. To access the pathogenic potential of isolates, it is essential to analyze them under defined conditions that allow for the production of their toxic metabolites. All Stachybotrys species are assumed to produce the immunosuppressive phenylspirodrimanes, but the highly cytotoxic macrocyclic trichothecenes are exclusively generated by the genotype S of S. chartarum. In this study, we have analyzed four genotype S strains initially isolated from three different habitats. We grew them on five commonly used media (malt-extract-agar, glucose-yeast-peptone-agar, potato-dextrose-agar, cellulose-agar, Sabouraud-dextrose-agar) to identify conditions that promote mycotoxin production. Using LC-MS/MS, we have quantified stachybotrylactam and all S-type specific macrocyclic trichothecenes (satratoxin G, H, F, roridin E, L-2, verrucarin J). All five media supported a comparable fungal growth and sporulation at 25 degrees C in the dark. The highest concentrations of macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected on potato-dextrose-agar or cellulose-agar. Malt-extract-agar let to an intermediate and glucose-yeast-peptone-agar and Sabouraud-dextrose-agar to a poor mycotoxin production. These data demonstrate that the mycotoxin production clearly depends on the composition of the respective medium. Our findings provide a starting point for further studies in order to identify individual components that either support or repress the production of mycotoxins in S. chartarum.

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