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Zhou, Bing (2020): Sozialwissenschaftliche Osteuropaforschung. In: Meta-Research in Hermeneutics Phenomenology and Practical Philosophy, Vol. 12, No. 2: pp. 485-498
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The problem, what is the nature of the human action, relates to a controversial subject in philosophy. Against the current causal theory of action, which argues that the action is a consequence of the mental antecedents, Frankfurt throws up his theory of action, which is denoted by the crucial term, 'guidance'. According to Frankfurt, an action must take place under the guidance of the person, and the guidance alone is the nature of the action. Although the guidance plays a major role in the action, in fact, according to our discussion, the guidance alone cannot cover the nature of the action;moreover, causal reasons and the aim of the action must be added to its nature. The causal reasons start the action and its aim determines its direction. The guidance carries it out. Therefore, the causal reasons, the aim and the guidance work together to influence the whole action and belong to its nature.