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Bruno, V.; DeVault, C.; Vezzoli, S.; Kudyshev, Z.; Huq, T.; Mignuzzi, S.; Jacassi, A.; Saha, S.; Shah, Y. D.; Maier, S. A.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Boltasseva, A.; Ferrera, M.; Clerici, M.; Faccio, D.; Sapienza, R. and Shalaev, V. M. (2020): Negative Refraction in Time-Varying Strongly Coupled Plasmonic-Antenna-Epsilon-Near-Zero Systems. In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 124, No. 4, 043902

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Time-varying metasurfaces are emerging as a powerful instrument for the dynamical control of the electromagnetic properties of a propagating wave. Here we demonstrate an efficient time-varying metasurface based on plasmonic nano-antennas strongly coupled to an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) deeply subwavelength film. The plasmonic resonance of the metal resonators strongly interacts with the optical ENZ modes, providing a Rabi level spitting of similar to 30%. Optical pumping at frequency. induces a nonlinear polarization oscillating at 2 omega responsible for an efficient generation of a phase conjugate and a negative refracted beam with a conversion efficiency that is more than 4 orders of magnitude greater compared to the bare ENZ film. The introduction of a strongly coupled plasmonic system therefore provides a simple and effective route towards the implementation of ENZ physics at the nanoscale.

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