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Vignolo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Laha, Sourav; Jimenez-Solano, Alberto; Oshima, Takayoshi; Duppel, Viola; Schuetzenduebe, Peter; Lotsch, Bettina V. (2020): Toward Standardized Photocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Rates Using RuO2@TiO2 as a Benchmark. In: Matter, Vol. 3, No. 2: pp. 464-486
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Quantitative comparison of photocatalytic performances across different photocatalysis setups is technically challenging. Here, we combine the concepts of relative and optimal photonic efficiencies to normalize activities with an internal benchmark material, RuO2 photodeposited on a P25-TiO2 photocatalyst, which was optimized for reproducibility of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Additionally, a general set of good practices was identified to ensure reliable quantification of photocatalytic OER, including photoreactor design, photocatalyst dispersion, and control of parasitic reactions caused by the sacrificial electron acceptor. Moreover, a method combining optical modeling and measurements was proposed to quantify the benchmark absorbed and scattered light (7.6% and 81.2%, respectively, of lambda = 300-500 nm incident photons), rather than just incident light (approximate to AM1.5G), to estimate its internal quantum efficiency (16%). We advocate the adoption of the instrumental and theoretical framework provided here to facilitatematerial standardization and comparison in the field of artificial photosynthesis.