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Hofmann, Michaela M.; Fleischmann, Andreas (2020): A photo-based assessment of wild bees in a filled-up gravel pit in Riem, Munich - with a species list of bees found in Central European gravel pits (Hymenoptera, Apiformes). In: Spixiana, Vol. 43, No. 1: pp. 161-174
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Abstract

Gravel pits, both in active use and restored, provide important replacement habitats and nesting requisites for wild bees formerly specialized in nesting in dynamic fluvial landscapes. Species inventories in six Central European gravel pits report 245 species of wild bees, and this study found 48 species of wild bees and the domesticated Apis mellifera in the refilled section of the Obermayr gravel pit in Riem, Munich. The tested inventory method of in-situ photo-documentation, instead of voucher specimen collection, was feasible for most bee families, but is not applicable for Halictidae and some small nomad bees (genus Nomada) or miniminers (Andrena subgenus Micrandrena), as well as species complexes in the genus Bombus.